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  • Writer's pictureDr Josh Bonine DC



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Strain/sprain has 2 parts. The strain is an overstretching of the muscle and tendon. The sprain component is an overstretching and tearing of the ligament, and as explained in Trauma Series #13, has 3 grades. All 3 grades involve overstretching of the ligament and tearing of tissue to some degree from minor in grade 1 to moderate and severe in grades 2 and 3. It is well-documented in medical research that grades 2 and 3 have permanent sequelae, as the tissue will not heal, but wound repair with adhesions (internal scar tissue), leaving the joint unstable for a lifetime. Current research reveals that all 3 grades of strain leave the ligement with permanent bodily damage. Tozer and Duprez (2005) reported “that no treatment currently exists to restore an injured tendon or ligament to its normal condition” (p. 231).

Ligaments are like rubber bands. The longer and harder you stretch them, the worse they deform. This creates instability and over time, if left undetected and uncorrected, leads to arthritis and bony formations in the joints, known as osteophytes.


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Tozer, S., & Duprez, D. (2005). Tendon and ligament: Development, repair and disease. Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews,75(3), 226-236.



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